Sarojini Naidu Biography: She was an Indian political activist, poet, and a major figure in India’s struggle for independence of colonial rule. She was the first Indian woman to serve as the president of the Indian National Congress and to be appointed as the governor of an Indian state. She was popularly known as ‘the nightingale of India’. She was also the first female governor of an Indian state. Scroll down to find out more about her.
Sarojini Naidu: key facts
|famous named||The Indian nightingale or Bharat Kokila|
|Was born||February 13, 1879|
|Place of birth||Hyderabad, Hyderabad State, British India|
|Died||March 2, 1949 (age 70)|
|place of death||Lucknow, United Provinces, Dominion of India|
Father: Aghorenath Chattopadhyay
Mother: Varada Sundari Devi
|Alma mater||King’s College LondonGirton College, Cambridge|
|political affiliation||Indian National Congress|
|Memorial or Institutions||Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Sarojini Naidu College for Women, Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication|
Sarojini Naidu Biography: Early Life, Family, Education, Marriage
He was born on February 13, 1879 in Hyderabad, India. She was the eldest daughter of Aghorenath Chattopadhyay, a Bengali Brahmin who was a principal of Nizam’s College, Hyderabad. Her mother was Varada Sundari Devi. At the age of twelve, she entered the University of Madras and studied (1895-1898) at King’s College London. Later, she studied at Girton College, Cambridge.
In 1898 she came to Hyderabad and in the same year she married Govindarajulu Naidu. He was a doctor. Padmaja, her daughter also joined the Exit the India Movement.
Sarojini Naidu: political career
In early 1904, she became a popular orator, promoting Indian independence and women’s rights, primarily women’s education. In 1906, she addressed the Indian National Congress and the Indian Social Conference in Calcutta.
He was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal in 1911 for his social work for flood relief. Later, she returned it in protest of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (April 1919). In 1909 he met Muthulakshmi Reddy and Mahatma Gandhi in 1914.
In 1917, she and Reddy helped establish the Women’s Indian Association. Later, she accompanied her colleague Annie Besant to advocate for universal suffrage before the Joint Select Committee in London, UK. At the time, Annie Besant was the president of the Home Rule League and the Women’s Indian Association. She also supported the Lucknow Pact. As a speaker, she was famous for her personality and her incorporation of poetry.
He had close ties to Mahatma Gandhi, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, and Sarala Devi Chaudhurani. He joined Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha movement of nonviolent resistance against British rule after 1917. In 1919, he went to London as part of the All India Home Rule League. The following year, he participated in the non-cooperation movement in India.
He traveled East Africa and South Africa for the Indians in 1924. He was one of the main figures leading the Civil Disobedience Movement and the Quit Indian Movement. In 1925, she was appointed President of the Indian National Congress. In 1928-29, she toured North America lecturing on the Congressional movement.
She was a founding member of the Conference of Indian Women in 1927. She also presided over the 1929 session of the East African and Indian Congress in South Africa.
When he returned to India, his anti-British activity earned him several prison sentences in 1930, 1932 and 1942-1943. The Indian National Congress did not attend the first Round Table Conference (London). However, in 1921, Sarojini Naidu and other leaders attended the second Round Table Conference (London) which was headed by Viceroy Lord Irwin. After the outbreak of World War II, he supported the policies of the Congress Party. She became Governor of the United Province (now Uttar Pradesh) and remained in office until her death.
The literary life of Sarojini Naidu (writing career)
He led an active literary life and attracted notable Indian intellectuals. At the age of 12, he began to write. Maher Muneer, his work written in Persian impressed the Nizam of the Kingdom of Hyderabad. His English poetry took the form of lyric poetry in the tradition of British Romanticism. She was also famous for her vivid use of rich sensory imagery in her writing and for her depictions of India. The first volume of poetry by him was published in 1905 called The Golden Threshold. She was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1914.
In 1912, his second and more strongly nationalist book of poems, El pájaro del tiempo, El pájaro del tiempo, was published. His collected poems of his that were written in English have been published under the titles The Sceptred Flute (1928) and The Feather of the Dawn (1961).
Sarojini Naidu’s work as a poet earned him the nickname ‘the nightingale of India’ or Mahatma Gandhi’s Bharat Kokila’ due to the colour, imagery and lyrical quality of his poetry. His poetry consists of children’s poems and various other themes, including patriotism, romance, and tragedy.
Sarojini Naidu: Death
On March 2, 1949, he died of cardiac arrest at Lucknow Government House.
Sarojini Naidu Biography: Legacy
She was known as “one of India’s feminist luminaries”. National Women’s Day is celebrated on February 13 to commemorate the birth anniversary of Sarojini Naidu.
It was popularly known as the “Nightingale of India”. Furthermore, Edmund Gosse called her “India’s most accomplished living poet” in 1919. She was also commemorated at the Golden Threshold, which was an annex outside the University of Hyderabad campus. she named after her first poetry collection. Now, Golden Threshold is home to the Sarojini Naidu School of Communication and Arts at the University of Hyderabad.
In 1990, Eleanor Helin discovered the asteroid 5647 Sarojininaidu at the Palomar Observatory. It was named in her memory. On August 27, 2019, the Minor Planet Center published the official citation of the name. Additionally, Google India commemorated the 135th birth anniversary of Sarojini Naidu with a Google Doodle in 2014.
Sarojini Naidu Biography: Some works about her
In 1966, the first biography of Sarojini Naidu called Sarojini Naidu: A Biography was published and written by Padmini Sengupta.
In 2014, Hachette published a biography for children, Sarojini Naidu: The Nightingale and The Freedom Fighter.
A twenty-minute documentary on Naidu’s life, “Sarojini Naidu – The Nightingale of India” was produced by the Film Division of the Government of India in 1975. It was directed by Bhagwan Das Garga.
Sarojini Naidu: Dating
1. “We want a deeper sincerity of motive, a greater courage in speech, and seriousness in action.”
2. “The greatness of a country lies in its enduring ideals of love and sacrifice that inspire the mothers of the race.”
3. “I say that it is not your pride to be a madrasi, it is not your pride to be a Brahmin, it is not your pride to be South Indian, it is not your pride to be a Hindu, it is your pride to be an Indian.”
4. “When there is oppression, the only thing that is respected is to get up and say this will stop today because my right is justice. If you are stronger, you have to help the weaker boy or girl both in play and at work. .”
5. “I’m not ready to die because it takes infinitely greater courage to live.”