Sparta: Definition, Greece and the Peloponnesian War – HISTORY

Sparta was a warrior society in ancient Greece that reached the height of its power after defeating rival city-state Athens in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Spartan culture focused on loyalty to the state and military service. Spartan children entered a rigorous state-sponsored program of education, military training, and socialization. Known as Agoge, the system emphasized duty, discipline, and endurance. Although Spartan women were not active in the military, they were educated and enjoyed more status and freedom than other Greek women.

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spartan life

Sparta, also known as Lacedaemon, was an ancient Greek city-state located primarily in a region of southern Greece called Laconia. The population of Sparta consisted of three main groups: the Spartans, or Spartians, who were full citizens; the helots, or serfs/slaves; and the periecos, who were neither slaves nor citizens. The Perioeci, whose name means “inhabitants of the surrounding area”, worked as artisans and merchants, making weapons for the Spartans.